The American Institute of Physics Statistical Research Center conducts periodic surveys of the employment status of recent physics and astronomy graduates at both the bachelor's and PhD level. They collect information on the employment sectors physics and astronomy degree holders work in, such as the private sector, high schools, government, and colleges and universities, as well as information about starting salaries in the different employment sectors. They also ask about the kinds of physics skills recent graduates use in their jobs, and how satisfied they are.
We've separated these statistics by bachelor's degrees, PhD degrees, and astronomy degrees. You can get an idea of the broad range of jobs that physics and astronomy graduates work, and how much they earn in those jobs.